Publications: 2002 to 2016

For a list of my publications up to 2007 in Microsoft Word format, please click here. For an EndNote file listing all, or at least most, of my publications, click here.

Below, I list some recent and forthcoming publications. Pre-publication versions of most of my publications from 2000 on can generally be downloaded free of charge from the Institute of Education’s e-print repository. A complete listing of my publications available from the repository can be found here. Everything else you’ll just have to get in the traditional way...

Wiliam, D. (2016). La evaluación formative del desempeño de la enseñanza. In G. G. Niebla, M. T. M. Irigoyen, F. E. R. Castaño, H. S. Pérez & F. T. Segura (Eds.), La evaluación docente en el mundo (pp. 166-199). Mexico City, Mexico: Instituto Nacional para la Evaluación de la Educación.

Wiliam, D. (t2015). Assessment: A powerful focus for the improvement of mathematics instruction. In C. Suurtamm (Ed.), Assessment to enhance learning and teaching. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Wiliam, D., & Leahy, S. (2015). Embedding formative assessment: Practical techniques for K-12 classrooms. West Palm Beach, FL: Learning Sciences International.

ҚАРА ЖӘШІК ІШІНДЕГІ ЖҰМЫС (Kazakh translation of “Working inside the black box”)

Работа внутри «черного ящика» (Russian translation of “Working inside the black box”)

Wiliam, D. (2014). What do teachers need to know about the new Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing? Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 33(4), 29-30. 

Wiliam, D. (2014). The formative evaluation of teaching performance (Occasional Paper 137). East Melbourne, Australia: Centre for Strategic Education.

Wiliam, D. (2014). Principled assessment design. London, UK: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. Also available in a special Scottish edition, published by the Tapestry Partnership. Details are here.

Wiliam, D. (2014). The right questions, the right way: What do the questions teachers ask in class really reveal about student learning? Educational Leadership, 71(6), 16-19. 

Wiliam, D. (2014). Randomized control trials in education research. Research in Education, 6(1), 3-4. 

Wiliam, D. (2014). Teacher expertise: Why it matters and how to get more of it. In J. Hallgarten, L. Bamfield & K. McCarthy (Eds.), Licensed to create: Ten essays on improving teacher quality (pp. 27-36). London, UK: Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA).

Wiliam, D. (2014). Planning assessment without levels. Teach Primary, 8(6), 29-31. 


Wiliam, D. (2013). How is testing supposed to improve schooling? Some reflections. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 11(1), 55-59.

Wiliam, D., Kingsbury, G. G., & Wise, S. L. (2013). Connecting the dots: Formative, interim, and summative assessment. In R. W. Lissitz (Ed.), Informing the practice of teaching using formative and interim assessment: A systems approach. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

Wiliam, D. (2013). The importance of teaching. In J. Clifton (Ed.), Excellence and equity: Tackling educational disadvantage in England’s secondary schools (pp. 50-57). London, UK: Institute for Public Policy Research.

Stacey, K. C., & Wiliam, D. (2013). Technology and assessment in mathematics. In M.A. Clements, A. J. Bishop, C. Keitel, J. Kilpatrick & F. K. S. Leung (Eds.), Third international handbook of mathematics education (pp. 721-752). New York, NY: Springer.

Wiliam, D. (2013). Principled curriculum design. London, UK: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust.

Wiliam, D. (2013). Assessment: The bridge between teaching and learning. Voices from the Middle, 21(2), 15-20.


Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2012). Assessment for learning in the classroom. In J. Gardner (Ed.), Assessment for learning: practice, theory and policy (2 ed., pp. 11-32). London, UK: Sage.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2012). Developing a theory of formative assessment. In J. Gardner (Ed.), Assessment for learning: practice, theory and policy (2 ed., pp. 206-229). London, UK: Sage.

Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2012). The reliability of assessments. In J. Gardner (Ed.), Assessment for learning: practice, theory and policy (2 ed., pp. 243-263). London, UK: Sage.

Leahy, S., & Wiliam, D. (2012). From teachers to schools: scaling up professional development for formative assessment. In J. Gardner (Ed.), Assessment for learning: practice, theory and policy (2 ed., pp. 49-71). London, UK: Sage.

Wiliam, D. (September 2012). Designing feedback as part of a system. Educational Leadership 70(1), 30-34.

Wiliam, D. (2012). Feedback and instructional correctives. In J. H. McMillan (Ed.), Sage handbook of research on classroom assessment (2 ed., pp. 167-178). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Wiliam, D. (2012). Are there ‘good’ schools and ‘bad’ schools? In P. S. Adey & J. Dillon (Eds.), Bad education: Debunking myths in education (pp. 3-15). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.

He, Q., Hayes, M., & Wiliam, D. (to appear, 2012). Classification accuracy in key stage 2 national curriculum tests in England. Research Papers in Education, 28(1), 22-42.


Wiliam, D., & Thoresen, O. (Eds.). (2011). Report of the Mathematics Excellence Group. Edinburgh, UK: Scottish Government.

Leahy, S., & Wiliam, D. (2011, April). Devising learning progressions. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association held at New Orleans, LA.

Wiliam, D. (2011). Embedded formative assessment. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Also published in Australia by Hawker-Brownlow Education.

Wiliam, D. (2011). What is assessment for learning? Studies in Educational Evaluation 37(1), 2-14.

Halai, A., & Wiliam, D. (Eds.). (2011). Research methodologies in the 'South'. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press.

James, M., Oates, T., Pollard, A., & Wiliam, D. (2011). The framework for the national curriculum: A report by the Expert Panel for the National Curriculum Review. London, UK: Department for Education.


Leahy, S., & Wiliam, D. (2010). Embedding assessment for learning professional development pack 2: teacher learning communities in action (CD-ROM). London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. Available from the SSAT’s e-shop.

Wiliam, D. (2010). What counts as evidence of educational achievement? The role of constructs in the pursuit of equity in assessment. In A. Luke, G. Kelly & J. Green (Eds.), What counts as evidence in educational settings? Rethinking equity, diversity and reform in the 21st century (Review of Research in Education Vol. 34, pp. 254-284). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

Wiliam, D. (2010). Standardized testing and school accountability. Educational Psychologist, 45(2), 107-122.

Resnick, L. B., Wiliam, D., Apodaca, R., & Rangel, E. S. (May 2010). The relationship between assessment and the organization and practice of teaching. In E. L. Baker, B. McGaw & P. L. Peterson (Eds.), International Encylopedia of Education (3 ed.). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Wiliam, D. (2010). The role of formative assessment in effective learning environments. In H. Dumont, D. Istance & F. Benavides (Eds.), The nature of learning: using research to inspire practice (pp. 135-160). Paris, France: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.


Wiliam, D. (2009). An integrative summary of the research literature and implications for a new theory of formative assessment. In H. L. Andrade & G. J. Cizek (Eds.), Handbook of formative assessment (pp. 18-40). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

Wiliam, D. (2009). Assessment for learning: why, what and how? London: Institute of Education, University of London. For details of how to order, click here.

Black, P. J., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational Assessment,  Evaluation and Accountability (formerly the Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education) 21(1), 5-31.

Leahy, S., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Embedding assessment for learning—a professional development pack (CD-ROM). London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. For details of how to order, click here.

Pachler, N., Mellar, H., Daly, C., Mor, Y., Wiliam, D., & Laurillard, D. (2009). Scoping a vision for formative e-assessment: a project report for JISC. London, UK: Institute of Education, University of London.


Wiliam, D. (2008). Quality in assessment. In S. Swaffield (Ed.), Unlocking assessment (pp. 123-137). London, UK: David Fulton.

Wiliam, D., & Lester Jr, F. K. (2008). On the purpose of mathematics education research: making productive contributions to policy and practice. In L. D. English (Ed.), Handbook of international research in mathematics education (2 ed., pp. 32-48). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.

Thompson, M., & Wiliam, D. (2008). Tight but loose: a conceptual framework for scaling up school reforms. In E. C. Wylie (Ed.), Tight but loose: scaling up teacher professional development in diverse contexts (Vol. RR-08-29, pp. 1-44). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Wiliam, D. (2008). Improving learning in science with formative assessment. In J. Coffey, R. Douglas & C. Stearns (Eds.), Assessing science learning (pp. 3-20). Arlington, VA: NSTA Press.

Lappan, G., & Wiliam, D. (2008). Assessment shaping education: for better and for worse (Report of Discussion Group 12 at ICME 10). In M. Niss (Ed.), Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Mathematical Education (pp. 475-479). Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University.

Wiliam, D. (2008). International comparisons and sensitivity to instruction. Assessment in Education: Principles Policy and Practice, 15(3), 253-257.

Wiliam, D. (2008). What should education research do and how should it do it? Educational Researcher, 37(7) 432-438.


Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2007). Large-scale assessment systems: design principles drawn from international comparisons. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, 5(1), 1-53.

James, M., McCormick, R., Black, P., Carmichael, P., Drummond, M. J., Fox, A., MacBeath, J., Marshall, B., Pedder, D., Procter, R., Swaffield, S., Swann, J., & Wiliam, D. (2007). Improving learning how to learn: classrooms, schools and networks. London, UK: Routledge.

Wiliam, D. (2007). Balancing dilemmas: traditional theories and new applications. In A. Havnes & L. McDowell (Eds.), Balancing dilemmas in assessment and learning in contemporary education (Vol. 10, pp. 269-283). London, UK: Routledge.

Wiliam, D. (2007). Content then process: teacher learning communities in the service of formative assessment. In D. B. Reeves (Ed.), Ahead of the curve: the power of assessment to transform teaching and learning (pp. 183-204). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.

Wiliam, D. (2007). Keeping learning on track: classroom assessment and the regulation of learning. In F. K. Lester Jr (Ed.), Second handbook of mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 1053-1098). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Wiliam, D. (2007). Teachers and the law. In J. Dillon & M. Maguire (Eds.), Becoming a teacher: issues in secondary teaching (3 ed., pp. 139-149). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.

Wiliam, D., & Leahy, S. (2007). A theoretical foundation for formative assessment. In J. H. McMillan (Ed.), Formative classroom assessment: theory into practice (pp. 29-42). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Wiliam, D., & Thompson, M. (2007). Integrating assessment with instruction: what will it take to make it work? In C. A. Dwyer (Ed.), The future of assessment: shaping teaching and learning (pp. 53-82). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Wiliam, D. (2007). Once you know what they've learned, what do you do next? Designing curriculum and assessment for growth. In R. W. Lissitz (Ed.), Assessing and modeling cognitive development in school (pp. 241-270). Maple Grove, MN: JAM Press

Wiliam, D. (2007/2008, December/January). Changing classroom practice. Educational Leadership, 65(4), 36-42.


Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998/2002).  (Chinese translation of “Inside the black box”). London, UK: King’s College LondonPublications_files/Publications%20list%20%28MSWDX%29.docPublications_files/DWiliamPubsTo2012.enl,-The-Right-Way.aspx,-The-Right-Way.aspxPublications_files/Randomized%20control%20trials%20in%20education%20research%20%28REd%202014%29.pdfPublications_files/Licensed%20to%20create%20-%20Ten%20essays%20on%20improving%20teacher%20quality%20%28RSA%202014%29.pdf